Fertilizers and Research Icon

January 31, 2022

In the distant past, large animals used to go to predetermined places to die. Wild elephants still have this habit.

At such places, with the passage of time the bones of the animals became deposits of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate. Wherever cretaceous animals lived in groups, limestone will be found.

  • In Assam, for example, limestone and petroleum can be found.
    • The fat of these huge animals became petroleum
    • The bones became limestone

In Ráŕh, in Jalda and Jaipur, limestone can also be found.

Limestone can be used to manufacture good quality cement

  • It helps make oranges sweet.

There are 2 types of fertilizers:

  • organic
  • inorganic

When fertilizers are used, bacteria are also being used indirectly.

These bacteria function in 2 ways:

  • positive
  • negative

When you utilize bio-fertilizer bacteria (organic fertilizers), the function of the bacteria will only be positive.

  • You should start practical research into positive microvita from the study of bio-fertilizers and their positive functions.

The urine and dung from sheep are the best organic fertilizers from animals.

  • Sheep to be raised in Ráŕh can be acquired from Bengal, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Varieties from Australia can also be used.

Materials for bio-gas include:

  • cow dung
  • buffalo dung
  • sheep dung
  • the dung of mammals kept in protected compounds
  • the organic material from around lakes.

Water hyacinths are also a good raw material for producing bio-gas, but cow dung is best.

The dung of hybrid animals is not as good as that of pure or natural breeds because hybrids are more prone to disease.

Rotten vegetables are the best manure for green vegetables.

  • Cow dung cab also be used.

In the case of gourd, oil cakes and mustard cakes mixed equally with soil will increase production.

Animal fertilizers are insufficient for the maximum utilization of agricultural land.

Farmers need chemical fertilizers.

  • However, when chemical fertilizers are used intensively, the land becomes infertile and useless after some time.

This is because chemical fertilizers destroy the vital energy of the land so that it becomes lifeless, just like cement.

Intensive research should be conducted on how to use chemical fertilizers without producing any ill effects on the land. In the system of individual farming it is not possible to escape the ill effects of chemical fertilizers.

The solution is in the cooperative system where there is great scope for research and development to discover new ways to better utilize and prolong the land’s vitality.

Cooperatives combine the wealth and resources of many individuals and harness them in a united way.

In the past, farmers used to leave their land fallow for several years. But this is not possible today.

It is now necessary to adopt a system in which either:

  • chemical fertilizers that do not decrease soil fertility are used, or
  • high yields are produced without using chemical fertilizers at all.

Cottage Industries

Various types of cottage industries should be established on master units, subject to the availability of raw materials.

Cottage industries are:

  1. Animal and insect products
  • milk
  • wool
  • silk thread
  • lacquer
  • honey and wax
  1. Plant products
  • papadam from pulse
  • beaten rice from rice
  • cereal flakes from cereals
  • jams from fruits, etc.
  1. Industrial products and herbal medicines from plants
  • essences
  • ayurvedic medicines
  • naturopathic remedies
  1. Medicines and equipment of non-plant origin
  • allopathic and biochemic medicines
  • medical equipment such as pressure gauges
  1. Plant fibres
  • jute
  • cotton
  • linen
  • hemp
  • banana
  • pineapple
  • sisal
  • okra
  • basil
  1. Non-plant Fibres
  • nylon
  • rayon
  • plastic
  • artificial silk
  1. Non-metallic minerals
  • calcium carbonate
  • calcium sulphate
  • calcium phosphate
  • conch shells
  • rubber and oyster shells
  1. Non-metallic products
  • soap, liquid soap
  • shampoo
  • toothpaste
  • toothbrushes
  • detergent
  • nectar.
  1. Metallic products
  • gold
  • aluminum
  • bronze
  • brass
  • zinc, etc.
  • tin articles
  • thermometers
  • crockery
  • utensils.
  1. Iron products
  • steel
  • stainless steel
  • grinding machines
  • cement and fertilizers.

In poor areas, two or three simple industries can be started first, such as manufacturing briefcases, medicines or making flour with grinding machines.

Energy Production

The following energy can be produced on a small scale:

  • solar energy: This can power lights and water from solar panels
  • thermal power: This is from coal and other fossil fuels
  • bio-gas: This is from bio-mass waste for generators, cooking, lighting and small generators
  • hydroelectricity
  • pneumatic power: This is powered by the wind. It is one of the cheapest sources of energy for pumps and generators because the only costs are the initial capital investment to construct the mill and that of maintenance.

The bio-gas plant harnesses the gas generated by the decomposition of the bio-mass, which can then be collected and used for various purposes.

Cow, buffalo and human excreta can be used in bio-gas plants.

The slurry is an excellent manure because it breaks down in about one week, whereas fresh manure takes up to 6 months.

Slurry takes only 3 days to reach the roots of a plant compared to 3 months for normal manure.

Slurry can nourish a plant within 10 days, whereas normal cow dung takes up to 9 months.

Small-scale hydroelectric plants can also be constructed in the right environment. The Daksina River at Ánanda Nagar can allow a hydroelectric power plant. It can produce power for up to 9 months of the year.