Superphysics Superphysics

Integrated Farming

by PR Sarkar Icon
5 minutes  • 977 words
Table of contents

Self-reliance is the main objective of our farming projects, hence they should be oriented towards production.

They should not be dependent on outside resources.

An integrated approach to farming should include:

  • agriculture
  • horticulture
  • floriculture
  • sericulture
  • lac culture
  • apiculture
  • dairy farming
  • animal husbandry
  • irrigation
  • pisciculture
  • pest control
  • fertilizers
  • cottage industries
  • energy production
  • research centres
  • water conservation.

This approach will help make farming projects self-reliant.


Agriculture is the science of cultivating the soil and rearing animals. It includes the production of staple crops.

Staple crops which are important in Bengal include pulses of many kinds, cereals, coarse grains, oil-seeds, sugar crops and vegetables.


  • provide protein
  • supplement manure
    • They fix nitrogen in the soil from the air

Calcium, phosphates, potash, etc must still be added to pulse crops.

Cereals are rich in carbohydrates and include:

  • rice
  • wheat
  • maize
  • oats
  • barley
  • rye.

Coarse grains include all types of:

  • millet
  • sorghum
  • barley
  • rye
  • buckwheat.

Oil-seeds include:

  • mustard
  • soya
  • sesame
  • linseed
  • safflower
  • sunflower

It is most important to exchange seeds between India and the rest of the world.

Sugar crops include:

  • sugar cane
  • sugar beet
  • date palm
  • palmyra

Spices include cloves, cumin, coriander, etc.

Many types of medicinal plants can be grown in Bengal.

The variety of vegetables that are produced should be increased.

Tea and rubber can be grown:

  • for use by the local people
  • as cash crops.

Cash crops grown by cooperatives can help raise the economic standard of poor local people in a short time.

In the case of yellow mustard, big lentils and wheat, there is a choice of early, medium and late varieties.

But in the case of paddy there is no such choice.

If the early, medium and late varieties of any crop are available for plantation, and sufficient time is at hand to choose any of them, then the early variety should be chosen first for plantation.

In case the early variety fails, then the medium variety should be tried.

If everything is done properly, the production of this variety will be almost equal to the early variety. If the medium variety also fails for some reason, then lastly the late variety should be tried.

If the late variety is planted in the beginning of the season and fails for some reason, then there is no scope for cultivation and the season will be lost.

Liquid manure should be applied along with the second irrigation after proper weeding.

Paddy is the staple food in northeastern India.

In the boro variety of paddy, weeding should be done 1 month after transplantation, and then liquid manure should be applied. The liquid manure is not poisonous, otherwise it will harm the pisciculture.

Even rocky land can be made fit for cultivation after filling it up with good soil.

We should try our best to grow napier grass for cattle fodder on hillocks wherever possible.

It is more difficult to grow napier grass on hills than on flat land because it takes a lot of water. Nevertheless we should try, in order to save the best crop land for other crops.

Where there are railway lines which belong to the railway department going through agricultural land, cow pea, late áus paddy or black gram should be cultivated on both sides of the railway lines.

Whenever plants from frigid and temperate zones are transplanted into a warm or hot climate, they should be planted on high land, near stones and rocks if possible, so that at night they will be kept cool.

The fencing of all farm compounds except beauty spots may be utilized as a platform for:

  • spinach in spring and summer
  • beans in summer, the rainy season, autumn and winter.

In the case of beauty spots, the fencing may be utilized as a platform for flower creepers.

Farming projects should grow crops for special emergency survival. These include:

  • vegetables
  • pulses
  • potato
  • fodder for dairy cows to ensure milk production.

All farming projects must start the production of these items immediately.

They are the minimum items necessary for physical survival. These items will ensure your survival in any difficult times that may come in the future.


Irrigation is also an important aspect of farming.

As a principle, subterranean water should not be used for irrigation purposes. Subterranean water should not be disturbed, otherwise the level of the water-table will drop, leading to an acute shortage of water.

The best system is to collect surface water. The rainwater, even from light showers, should be collected where it falls. If the huge reserves of water under some deserts are harnessed, it may do more harm than good. It is always better to conserve surface water.

Desert reclamation requires:

  • water conservation
  • irrigation
  • afforestation

In the Thar Desert of India, a canal has been constructed to bring water from the Ganges to irrigate the land. The Ganga Nagar area has been reclaimed and is now producing a lot of wheat.

The canal can be extended even further into the desert. Conserving surface water is the best method of irrigation and is preferable to exploiting underground water reserves.

Ecologists claim that some deserts are essential for keeping the global ecology in a balanced state.

  • The high day temperatures and the cold night temperatures in desert regions create a useful effect.
  • The hot dry desert air rises and creates a vacuum which sucks in other air, such as moist air from the sea. This causes rainfall.

They say that if deserts vanish entirely, the overall rainfall will be reduced.

But certain plants can attract rain clouds. Examples are:

  • sirisha [Albizzia lebbeck benth.]
  • shisu [Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.]
  • Himalayan white oak [Quercus incana Roxb.]
  • ferns

They also create a congenial environment for other plants.

Dairy Farming

Dairy farming includes milk production from dairy cows, goats, sheep and buffaloes. Milk powder and dehydrated curd should also be produced.

Animals are not to be sold for slaughter.

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