Superphysics

# Lemma 1-6

by Newton

## Lemma 1

Quantities, and the ratios of quantities, which continually converge to equality eventually become equal.

## Lemma 2

If any figure AacE, terminated by the right lines A a. AE, and the curve acE, there be inscribed any number of parallelograms Ab, Be, Cd, etc. comprehended under equal bases AB, BC, CD, etc., and the sides, Bb, Cc, Dd, etc., parallel to one side Aa of the figure.

The parallelograms aKbl, bLcm, cMdn, etc are completed.

If the width of those parallelograms are diminished, and their number augmented infinitely, then the ultimate ratios which the inscribed figure AKbLcMdD, the circumscribed figure AalbmcndoE, and the curvilinear figure AabcdE will have to one another, are ratios of equality.

For the difference of the inscribed and circumscribed figures is the sum of the parallelograms Kl, Lw, M. Do. that is (from the equality of all their bases), the rectangle under one of their bases Kb and the sum of their altitudes Aa, that is, the rectangle ABla.

But this rectangle, because its width AB is supposed diminished infinitely, becomes less than any given space.

Therefore, by Lem. 1, the figures inscribed and circumscribed become ultimately equal one to the other; and much more will the intermediate curvilinear figure be ultimately equal to either.

## Lemma 3

The same ultimate ratios are also ratios of equality, when the breadths AB, BC, DC, etc of the parallelograms are unequal, and are all diminished in infinitum.

For suppose AF equal to the greatest breadth, and complete the parallelogram FAaf. This parallelo gram will be greater than the difference of the inscribed and circumscribed figures breadth come AF less

### Corollary 1= Hence, the ultimate sum of is

but, because its diminished in infinitum, it will be than any given rectangle. Q.E.D. Hence the ultimate sum of those evanes cent parallelograms will in all parts coincide with the curvilinear figure.

### Corollary 2= Much more

A BF C D E figure^comprehendcd under tne cd, (fee., ultimately coincide with tl.c will the rectilinear chords of the evanescent arcs ab, be, curvilinear figure. COR. 3. And also the circumscribed rectilinear figure comprehended under the tangents of the same arcs. COR. 4 And therefore these ultimate figures (as to their perimeters acE) are not rectilinear, but curvilinear limi s of rectilinear figures.

## Lemma 4

inscribe (as before) If in two figures AacE, PprT, you two ranks of parallelograms, an equal number in each rank, and, when their breadths are diminished in infinitum. the ultimate ratios of the parallelograms in one figure to those in the other, each to each respec I say, that those two figures tively, are the same; AacE, PprT, are to one another in that same ratio. For as the parallelograms in the one are severally to p the parallelograms in the other, so (by composition) sum of all in the one to the sum of all in the other is the and so is the one figure to the other; because (by Lem. Ill) the former figure to the former sum, and the latter figure to the Q.E.D. latter sum, are both in the ratio of equality. if two quantities of any kind are any divided into an equal number of parts, and those

### Corollary

Hence how ASEC. parts,

I.] when their number is 97 augmented, and their magnitude diminished in infinitum, have a given ratio one to the other, the first to the first, the second to the second, and so on in order, the whole quantities will be one to For if, in the figures of this Lemma, the other in that same given ratio. the parallelograms are taken one to the other in the ratio of the parts, the of the parts will always be as the sum of the parallelograms and sum ; therefore supposing the number of the parallelograms and parts to be aug mented, and their magnitudes diminished in infinitum, those sums will be in the ultimate ratio of the parallelogram in the one figure to the corres in the pondent parallelogram in the other that is (by the supposition), ultimate ratio of any part of the one quantity to the correspondent part of ; the other.

## Lemma 5

of homologous sides, whether curvilinear or ratio rectilinear, are proportional ; and the areas are in the duplicate In similar figures, all sorts of the homologous sides.

## Lemma 6

snb- _j If any arc ACB, given in position, is tended by its chord AB, and in any point A, in the middle of the contiinied curva ture, is touched by a right line AD, pro duced both ways ; then if the points A and B approach one another and meet, R I say, the angle RAT), contained between, the chord and the tangent, will be dimin- ? ished in infinitum, a/id ultimately will vanish. For if that angle does not vanish, the arc ACB will contain with the AD an angle equal to a rectilinear angle and therefore the cur tangent vature at the point will not be continued, which is against the supposi ; A tion.