Article 11: LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Section 1. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Philippines are the provinces, cities, municipalities, and barrios.
SEC. 2. The Batasang Pambansa shall enact a local government code which may not thereafter be amended except by a majority vote of all its Members, defining a more responsive and accountable local government structure with an effective system of recall, allocating among the different local government units their powers, responsibilities, and resources, and providing for the qualifications, election and removal, term, salaries, powers, functions, and duties of local officials, and all other matters relating to the organization and operation of the local units. However, any change in the existing form of local government shall not take effect until ratified by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite called for the purpose.
SEC. 3. No province, city, municipality, or barrio may be created, divided, merged, abolished, or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code, and subject to the approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the unit or units affected.
SEC. 4. (1) Provinces with respect to component cities and municipalities, and cities and municipalities with respect to component barrios, shall ensure that the acts of their component units are within the scope of their assigned powers and functions. Highly urbanized cities, as determined by standards established in the local government code, shall be independent of the province.
(2) Local government units may group themselves, or consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services, and resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them.
SEC. 5. Each local government unit shall have the power to create its own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.
Article 12: THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSIONS
A. COMMON PROVISIONS
Section 1. The Constitutional Commissions shall be the Civil Service Commission, the Commission on Elections, and the Commission on Audit.
SEC. 2. Unless otherwise provided by law, the Chairman and each Commissioner of a Constitutional Commission shall receive an annual salary of sixty thousand pesos and fifty thousand pesos, respectively, which shall not be decreased during their continuance in office.
SEC. 3. No Member of a Constitutional Commission shall, during his tenure in office, engage in the practice of any profession or in the management of any business, or be financially interested directly or indirectly in any contract with, or in any franchise or privilege granted by, the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof including government-owned or controlled corporations.
SEC. 4. The Constitutional Commissions shall appoint their officials and employees in accordance with the Civil Service Law.
B. THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
Section 1. (1) The Civil Service embraces every branch, agency, subdivision, and instrumentality of the Government, including every government-owned or controlled corporation. It shall be administered by an independent Civil, Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and, at the time of their appointment, are at least thirty-five years of age and holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the election immediately preceding their appointment. The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the Commissioners first appointed, one shall hold office for seven years, another for five years, and the third for three years. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
(2) The Commission shall, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law, establish a career service and adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, and integrity in the Civil Service.
SEC. 2. Appointments in the Civil Service, except as to those which are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical in nature, shall be made only according to merit and fitness, to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examination.
SEC. 3. No officer or employee in the Civil Service shall be suspended or dismissed except for causes as provided by law.
SEC. 4. (1) Unless otherwise provided by law, no elective official shall be eligible for appointment to any office or position during his tenure, except as Member of the Executive Committee referred to in Section 3, Article IX, hereof.
(2) No candidate who lost in an election shall be eligible for appointment or reappointment to any office in the Government, or in any’ government-owned or controlled Corporation, within one year following such election.
SEC. 5. No officer or employee in the Civil Service, inc1uding members of the armed forces, shall engage directly or indirectly in any partisan political activity or take part in any election except to vote.
SEC. 6. The Batasang Pambansa shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for, the positions concerned.
C. THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS
Section 1. (1) There shall be an independent Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and eight Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age and holders of a college degree. However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years.
(2) The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the Commissioners first appointed, three shall hold office for seven years, three for five years, and the last three for three years. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
SEC. 2. The Commission on Elections shall have the following powers and functions:
(1) Enforce and administer all laws relative to the conduct of elections.
(2) Be the sole judge of all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all Members of the Batasang Pambansa and elective provincial and city officials.
(3) Decide, save those involving the right to vote, administrative questions affecting elections, including the determination of the number and location of polling places, the appointment of election officials and inspectors, and the registration of voters.
(4) Deputize, with the consent or at the instance of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the armed forces of the Philippines, for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly, and honest elections.
(5) Register and accredit political parties subject to the provisions of Section eight hereof.
(6) Recommend to the Batasang Pambansa effective measures to minimize election expenses and prohibit all forms of election frauds and malpractices, political opportunism, guest or nuisance candidacy, or other similar acts.
(7) Submit to the President, the Prime Minister, and the Batasang Pambansa a report on the conduct and manner of each election.
(8) Perform such other functions as may be provided by law.
SEC. 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in three divisions. All election cases may be heard and decided by divisions, except contests involving Members of the Batasang Pambansa, which shall be heard and decided en banc. Unless otherwise provided by law, all election cases shall be, decided within ninety days from the date of their submission for decision.
SEC. 4. The Commission may recommend to the President the removal of, or any other disciplinary action against, any officer or employee it has deputized, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to, its decision, order, or directive.
SEC. 5. The enjoyment or utilization of all franchises or permits for the operation of transportation and other public utilities, media of communication or information, all grants, special privileges, or concessions granted by the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, may be supervised or regulated by the Commission during the election period for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly, and honest elections.
SEC. 6. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety days before the day of election and shall end thirty days thereafter.
SEC. 7. No pardon, parole or suspension of sentence for violation of the law or rules and regulations concerning elections shall be granted without the recommendation of the Commission.
SEC. 8. The political parties whose respective candidates for President have obtained the first and second highest number of votes in the last preceding election for President under this Constitution shall be entitled to accredition if each has obtained at least ten percent (10%) of the total number of votes cast in such election. If the candidates for President obtaining the two highest number of votes do not each obtain at least ten percent (10%) of the total number of votes cast, or in case no election for President shall as yet have been held, the Commission on Elections shall grant accredition to political parties as may be provided by law;
No religious sect shall be registered as a political party, and no political party which seeks to achieve its goal through violence shall be entitled to accredition.
SEC. 9. (1) Bona fide candidates for any public office shall be free from any form of harassment and discrimination.
(2) Accredited political parties shall be represented in the registration board, board of election inspectors, board of canvassers, or other similar bodies as may be provided by law.
Accredited political parties may by law be granted other rights or privileges.
SEC. 10. No elective public officer may change his political affiliation during his term of office, and no candidate for any elective office may change his political party affiliation within six months immediately preceding or following an election, unless otherwise provided by law.
SEC. 11. Any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from his, receipt of a copy thereof.
D. COMMISION ON AUDIT (COA)
- The COA has:
- 1 Chairman
- 2 Commissioners
These must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least 40 years of age and certified public accountants or members of the Philippine Bar for at least 10 years.
- They shall be appointed by the President for a 7 year term without reappointment.
Of the Commissioners first. appointed, one shall hold office for seven years, another for five years, and the third for three years.
Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired portion of the term of the predecessor.
Section 2. The Commission on Audit shall:
- Examine, audit, and settle, in accordance with law and regulations, all accounts pertaining to the revenues and receipts of, and expenditures or uses of funds and property, owned or held in trust by, or pertaining to, the Government, or any of its subdivisions, agencies, or instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations;
- keep the general accounts of the Government and, for such period as may be provided by law, preserve the vouchers pertaining thereto; and promulgate accounting and auditing rules and regulations including those for the prevention of irregular, unnecessary, excessive; or extravagant expenditures or uses of funds and property.
(2) Decide any case brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for resolution. Unless otherwise provided by law, any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from his receipt of a copy thereof.
(3) Submit to the President, the Prime Minister, and the Batasang Pambansa, within the time fixed by law, an annual financial report of the Government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations, and recommend measures necessary to improve their efficiency and effectiveness. It shall submit such other reports as may be required by law.
(4) Perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law.