Chapter 13

Education Icon

Article 31

  1. Every citizen has the right to receive education.

  2. Every citizen has the obligation to undertake basic education, and the government has the obligation to fund this.

  3. The government shall manage and organise one system of national education, which shall increase the level of spiritual belief, devoutness and moral character in the context of developing the life of the nation and shall be regulated by law.

  4. The state shall prioritise the budget for education to a minimum of 20% of the State Budget and of the Regional Budgets to fulfil the needs of implementation of national education.

  5. The government shall advance science and technology with the highest respect for religious values and national unity for the advancement of civilisation and prosperity of humankind.

Article 32

  1. The State shall advance the national culture of Indonesia among the civilisations of the world by assuring the freedom of society to preserve and to develop cultural values.

  2. The State shall respect and preserve local languages as national cultural treasures. Right to culture

Chapter 14. The National Economy and Social Welfare Ownership of natural resources

Article 33

  1. The economy shall be organized as a common endeavour based upon the principles of the family system.
  2. Sectors of production which are important for the country and affect the life of the people shall be under the powers of the State.
  3. The land, the waters and the natural resources within shall be under the powers of the State and shall be used to the greatest benefit of the people.
  4. The organisation of the national economy shall be conducted on the basis of economic democracy upholding the principles of togetherness, efficiency with justice, continuity, environmental perspective, self-sufficiency, and keeping a balance in the progress and unity of the national economy.
  5. Further provisions relating to the implementation of this article shall be regulated by law.

Article 34

  1. Impoverished persons and abandoned children shall be taken care of by the State.
  2. The State shall develop a system of social security for all of the people and shall empower the inadequate and underprivileged in society in accordance with human dignity.
  3. The State shall have the obligation to provide sufficient medical and public service facilities.
  4. Further provisions in relation to the implementation of this Article shall be regulated by law.

Chapter 15: National Flag, Language, Coat of Arms and Anthem

Article 35

The national flag of Indonesia shall be the Red and White (Sang Merah Putih).

Article 36

The national language shall be Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia).

Article 36A

The national coat of arms shall be the Pancasila eagle (Garuda Pancasila) with the motto Unity in Diversity (Bhinneka Tunggal Ika).

Article 36B

The national anthem shall be Indonesia Raya.

Article 36C Further provisions regarding the national flag, language, coat of arms and anthem shall be regulated by law.

Chapter 16: Constitutional Amendments

Article 37

  1. A proposal to amend the Articles of this Constitution may be included in the agenda of an MPR session if it is submitted by at least 1/3 of the total MPR membership.
  2. Any proposal to amend the Articles of this Constitution shall be introduced in writing and must clearly state the articles to be amended and the reasons for the amendment.
  3. To amend the Articles of this Constitution, the session of the MPR requires at least 2/3 of the total membership of the MPR to be present.
  4. Any decision to amend the Articles of this Constitution shall be made with the agreement of at least fifty percent plus one member of the total membership of the MPR.
  5. Provisions relating to the form of the unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia may not be amended.

Article 1

All existing state institutions shall remain in place in order to implement the provisions of this Constitution as long as new state institutions are not yet established in conformity with this Constitution.

Article 2

All existing laws and regulations shall remain in effect as long as new laws and regulations have not yet taken effect under this Constitution.

Article 3

The Constitutional Court shall be established at the latest by 17 August 2003, and the Supreme Court shall undertake its functions before it is established.

Additional Provisions

Article I The MPR is tasked to undertake a review of the content and the legal status of the Decrees (TAP) of the MPRS and the MPR for decision by the MPR at its session in 2003. Article II With the enactment of this Amendment to the Constitution, the Constitution of the State of the Republic of Indonesia shall consist of the Preamble and the Articles. Indonesia 1945 (reinst. 1959, rev. 2002)