The Bedouinsby Ibn Khaldun
1. Both Bedouins and sedentary people are natural groups.
Their differences are from the different ways in which they make their living.
Social organization enables them to cooperate toward that end and to start with the simple necessities of life, before they get to conveniences and luxuries.
- Some people adopt agriculture, the cultivation of vegetables and grains, (as their way of making a living).
- Others adopt animal husbandry, the use of sheep, cattle, goats, bees, and silkworms, for breeding and for their products.
Those who live by agriculture or animal husbandry cannot avoid the call of the desert, because it alone offers the wide fields, acres, pastures for animals, and other things that the settled areas do not offer. 4 It is therefore necessary for them to restrict themselves to the desert.
Their social organization and co-operation for the needs of life and civilization, such as food, shelter, and warmth, do not take them beyond the bare subsistence level, because of their inability (to provide) for anything beyond those (things).
Subsequent improvement of their conditions and acquisition of more wealth and comfort than they need, cause them to rest and take it easy. Then, they co-operate for things beyond the (bare) necessities. They use more food and clothes, and take pride in them.
They build large houses, and lay out towns and cities for protection. This is followed by an increase in comfort and ease, which leads to formation of the most developed luxury customs.
They take the greatest pride in the preparation of food and a fine cuisine, in the use of varied splendid clothes of silk and brocade and other (fine materials), in the construction of ever higher buildings and towers, in elaborate furnishings for the buildings, and the most intensive cultivation of crafts in actuality. They build castles and mansions, provide them with running water,5 build their towers higher and higher, and compete in furnishing them (most elaborately). They differ in the quality of the clothes, the beds, the vessels, and the utensils they employ for their purposes. Here, now, (we have) sedentary people.
“Sedentary people” means the inhabitants of cities and countries, some of whom adopt the crafts as their way of making a living, while others adopt commerce. They earn more and live more comfortably than Bedouins, because they live on a level beyond the level of (bare) necessity, and their way of making a living corresponds to their wealth.
Bedouins and sedentary people naturally exist by necessity.
2. The Arabs are a natural group
The inhabitants of the desert adopt the natural manner of making a living, namely, agriculture and animal husbandry. They restrict themselves to the necessary in food, clothing, and mode of dwelling, and to the other necessary conditions and customs.
They do not possess conveniences and luxuries beyond (these bare necessities). They use tents of hair and wool, or houses of wood, or of clay and stone, which are not furnished (elaborately).
The purpose is to have shade and shelter, and nothing beyond that. They also take shelter in caverns and caves. The food they take is either little prepared or not prepared at all, save that it may have been touched by fire. 7
For those who make their living through the cultivation of grain and through agriculture, it is better to be stationary than to travel around. Such, therefore, are the inhabitants of small communities, villages, and mountain regions. These people make up the large mass of the Berbers and non-Arabs.
Those who make their living from animals requiring pasturage, such as sheep and cattle, usually travel around in order to find pasture and water for their animals, since it is better for them to move around in the land. They are called= “sheepmen” (shawiyah), that is, men who live on sheep and cattle.
They do not go deep into the desert, because they would not find good pastures there. Such people include the Berbers, the Turks and their relatives, the Turkomans and the Slavs,8 for instance.
Those who make their living by raising camels move around more.
They wander deeper into the desert, because the hilly 9 pastures with their plants and shrubs do not furnish enough subsistence for camels. They must feed on the desert shrubs and drink the salty desert water. They must move around the desert regions during the winter, in flight from the harmful cold to the warm desert air. In the desert sands, camels can find places to give birth to their young ones. Of all animals, camels have the hardest delivery and the greatest need for warmth in connection with it.10
Camel nomads are therefore forced to make excursions deep (into the desert). Frequently, too, they are driven from the hills by the militia, and they penetrate farther into the desert, because they do not want the militia 11 to mete out justice to them or to punish them for their hostile acts.
As a result, they are the most savage human beings that exist. Compared with sedentary people, they are on a level with wild, untamable (animals) and dumb beasts of prey. Such people are the Arabs.
- in the West, the nomadic Berbers and the Zanatah are their counterparts
- in the East, the Kurds, the Turkomans, and the Turks.
The Arabs, however, make deeper excursions into the desert and are more rooted in desert life (than the other groups), because they live exclusively on camels, while the other groups live on sheep and cattle, as well as camels.
It has thus become clear that the Arabs are a natural group which by necessity exists in civilization.
3. The desert is the basis and reservoir of civilization and cities
Bedouins are prior to sedentary people. They restrict themselves to the bare necessities in their conditions (of life) and are unable to go beyond them, while sedentary people concern themselves with conveniences and luxuries in their conditions and customs.
The bare necessities are prior to the conveniences and luxuries. Bedouins, thus, are the basis of, and prior to, cities and sedentary people. Man seeks first the (bare) necessities.
Only after he has obtained the (bare) necessities, does he get to comforts and luxuries.
The toughness of desert life precedes the softness of sedentary life. Therefore, urbanization is found to be the goal of the Bedouin. He aspires to (that goal) . 14
Through his own efforts, he achieves what he proposes to achieve in this respect. When he has obtained enough to be ready for the conditions and customs of luxury, he enters upon a life of ease and submits himself to the yoke of the city. This is the case with all Bedouin tribes.
Sedentary people, on the other hand, have no desire for desert conditions, unless they are motivated by some urgent necessity 15 or they cannot keep up with their fellow city dwellers.
Evidence for the fact that Bedouins are the basis of, and prior to, sedentary people is furnished by investigating the inhabitants of any given city. We shall find that most of its inhabitants originated among Bedouins dwelling in the country and villages of the vicinity. Such Bedouins became wealthy, settled in the city, and adopted a life of ease and luxury, such as exists in the sedentary environment.
This proves that sedentary conditions are secondary to desert conditions and that they are the basis of them. 15a This should be understood. All Bedouins and sedentary people differ also among themselves in their conditions (of life). Many a clan is greater than another, many a tribe greater than another, many a city larger than another, and many a town more populous (‘umran) than another.
The existence of Bedouins is prior to, and the basis of, the existence of towns and cities.
Likewise, the existence of towns and cities results from luxury customs pertaining to luxury and ease, which are posterior to the customs that go with the bare necessities of life.