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Article 1 Sections 1-6

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Article 1

Section. 1.

All legislative Powers are with the US Congress, consisting of:

  • a Senate
  • a House of Representatives.

Section. 2.

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States.

The Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

A Representative must be:

  • at least 25 years old and 7 years a US citizen
  • an inhabitant of that State

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.

The actual Enumeration shall be made within 3 Years after the first Meeting of the US Congress and within every subsequent Term of 10 Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.

The Number of Representatives shall not exceed 1 for every 30,000. But each State shall have at Least 1 Representative.

State Number
New Hampshire 3
Massachusetts 8
Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations 1
Connecticut 5
New-York 6
New Jersey 4
Pennsylvania 8
Delaware 1
Maryland 6
Virginia 10
North Carolina 5
South Carolina 5
Georgia 3

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section. 3.

The Senate shall have 2 Senators from each State, chosen by the State Legislature for 6 Years. Each Senator shall have 1 Vote.

Immediately after, they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into 3 Classes.

  1. First Class Senators shall vacate at the end of the 2nd second Year
  2. Second Class shall vacate at the end of the 4th Year
  3. Third Class shall vacate at the end of the 6th Year

In this way, 1/3 may be chosen every 2nd Year.

If Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

Senators must:

  • be at least 30 Years old
  • have been 9 Years a US Citizen
  • be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

The US Vice President shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. During impeachments, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation.

When the US President is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside. No Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of 2/3 of the Members present.

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States:

but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

Section. 4

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section. 5

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of 2/3, expel a Member.

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section. 6

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation.

They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

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