Articles 1-2

Declaration of Principles and State Policies


Article 1: National Territory

The national territory comprises:

  • the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein
  • all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its:
    • territorial sea
    • the seabed
    • the subsoil
    • the insular shelves
    • other submarine areas.

The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

Article 2: Declaration of Principles and State Policies


Section 1

The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them.

Section 2

The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy, adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.

Section 3

Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory.

Section 4

The Government’s prime duty is to serve and protect the people.

The Government may call on the people to defend the State. All citizens may be required to render personal military or civil service.

Section 5

All people shall enjoy:

  • peace and order
  • the protection of life, liberty, and property
  • the general welfare

Section 6

The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.

State Policies

Section 7

The State shall have an independent foreign policy.

In its relations with other states, the paramount consideration shall be:

  • national sovereignty
  • territorial integrity
  • national interest
  • the right to self-determination.

Section 8

The Philippines, consistent with the national interest, adopts and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in its territory.

Section 9

The State shall promote a just and dynamic social order that will:

  • ensure the prosperity and independence of the nation
  • free the people from poverty through policies that:
    • provide adequate social services
    • promote full employment and an improved quality of life.

Section 10

The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development.

Section 11

The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights.

Section 12

The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution.

It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. The natural and primary right and duty of parents in the rearing of the youth for civic efficiency and the development of moral character shall receive the support of the Government.

Section 13

The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being.

It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs.

Section 14

The State recognizes the role of women in nation-building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before the law of women and men.

Section 15

The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them.

Section 16

The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.

Section 17

The State shall give priority to education, science and technology, arts, culture, and sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social progress, and promote total human liberation and development.

Section 18

The State affirms labor as a primary social economic force. It shall protect the rights of workers and promote their welfare.

Section 19

The State shall develop a self-reliant and independent national economy effectively controlled by Filipinos.

Section 20

The State recognizes the indispensable role of the private sector, encourages private enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments.

Section 21

The State shall promote comprehensive rural development and agrarian reform.

Section 22

The State recognizes and promotes the rights of indigenous cultural communities within the framework of national unity and development.

Section 23

The State shall encourage non-governmental, community-based, or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation.

Section 24

The State recognizes the vital role of communication and information in nation-building.

Section 25

The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments.

Section 26

The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law.

Section 27

The State shall:

  • maintain honesty and integrity in the public service
  • take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption.

Section 28

There will be full public disclosure of all government transactions involving public interest.


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